This page is for everybody to do!!

This page (or you can add a 'new page') is divided into 2 sections:
1. the New Deal
2. the alphabet agencies

What are these? Were they successful or a failure? How did each try to help? .....these are a few questions to get to started and get you thinking. These is much, MUCH more that can be added (including photos, links, etc).

The New Deal (Jack's Webpage)

The New Deal is a deal that President Roosevelt had made in order to recover America's economy and social life. Their goals were called as the 'Three Rs' The Three Rs include Relief, Recovery, and Reform.

The first program set up by New Deal was the Civilian Conservation Corps (known as CCC). This program employed young men between the ages of 18 and 25 to work on projects to improve and protect environment. CCC wokers lived in camps on public lands, especially in the national parks. The main works are building bridges and trails, stopping soil erosion, fought forest fire and so on. CCC gave millions of frustrated, unemployed men a new kind of satisfaction.
In the early 1935, the bigger jobs program, the Works Progreass Administration(WPA), employed construction workers and engineers on new building projects all over the country. Government fand to improve and build many inflastructure, such as airport, power plants and bridges. Not only inflastructures, the public facilities such as hospitas and schools are also improved.
Moreover, WPA also gave jobs for artists and musicians. Musicians visited many places to perform, artists embelished buildings by painting (some of them still can be seen). This is the first time for government to do such a great help for arts.
(informations are from history book)

There is still a big act in New Deal that is Social Security.
Congress passed Social Security Act oin 1935. This law said that most wokers have to pay a bit part of their income into a special government fund. Then if the worker lost his job and way to earn his living, the government pay him money out of the fund to support his life while he looks for another job. Besides, it also works when the worker lost their job by illness or reaching the age of reitrement, and ca even keep supporting for rest of his life by sending regular payments. Thus, American workers have got a way to survive in case they lost their job.

By the way, many Americans ashamed to ask for help, because they have been brought up to believe that people should take care of themselves. But this law released Americans from this thought, since the money sent from the government for support is what they had earned so far.

However, farmers were not covered by this new law. Especially the farmers in Dust Bowl, the region in Great Plains that had got a severe drought and sand storm. By these natural hazards, the soil itself got dry and bew away by the wind sweeping gigantic clouds and dirt across the land. People could do nothing but protect themselves by wearing handkerchiefs over their mouths from this deadly sandstorm that could cause people's mouths to choke up by the dirt in the air. Many farmers abandoned their house in Great Plains and leave for California or wheresoever includes rich farm for them to be employed. They are called as 'Okie', since most of them are from Oklahoma. Since they coudn't be helped by Social Society, they had to live in a miserable camp, and a writer John Steinbeck wrote a novel which represents their tough lives, called 'The Grapes of Wrath'. (informations are from my brother's history textbook)
external image Alphabet.jpg
Relief was the effort made to help to help the people who were most affected by the Great Depression, which occupied about one-third of the population. Roosevelt made more work relief programs and added agencies, which are known as Alphabet Agencies for it was called by their initial because of their long name. For example, there were agencies with names such as Federal Emergencies Relief Administration, and there were other 59 agencies with long names so people found it easier to say the initials.

Other relief activity that was done includes social security and unemployment insurance programs. And other programs were set up for the people who lived in the countryside such as farmers.

Recovery was meant by recovering the economy to the normal state.

Reform was an idea that the Great Depression was caused because the market was very unstable, and that the government needed to stabilize the balance the interests of the farmers, businessmen and laborers.

President Roosevelt used the radio, which was new at those times, to directly appeal to the people in America. It was called the fireside chat.

Since the Great Depression started, one fifth of the bank had been forced to close, and 15%of people's saving had been lost. People started to put their money in their home instead of putting them in the bank, President Roosevelt then ordered all bank to close and asked the United States Congress to pass legislation which promised that people won't lose their money in the bank if there was another crash.

Alphabet Agencies helped the improvement of the economy by providing the people jobs. The helped keeping people employed during the Great Depression. It also improved places by providing new, better roads, schools, buildings and so on.

AAA (Agricultural Adjustment Administration) was set up to control farm products. To balance the supply and demand. They paid the farmers to not plant the crops and to reduce surpluses and increase the seven major farm comodities and raise prices. The AAA's aim was to raise the price of crops by controlling the amount made.

The agency that is said to be the best is the CCC (Civilian Conservation Corps). It was created in 1933. During the 9years that it run, it made 2.5million young unmarried men, age 18-25, work, planting 200millon trees, digging drainage ditch, building firebreaks, clearing campgrounds and building reservoirs. Each of these men sent $30 a month to thier families. Even people who argued about the New Deal had hardly anything to say about it. President Roosevelt was convinced that creating jobs would stimulate business.

Also there was a project called the Civilian Work Administration(CWA). In November 14th, 1933, they came here as the first job project in the city. They gave work to 4000 men with another 4000 signed up ready to work. Their wages were about $15 a week. They repaired schools, built roads and help laying sewer pipes. But Roosevelt disbanded the program in less then an year.


New Deal hand
New Deal hand

the new deal
the new deal

here are two pictures related to the New Deal click on it can bring you to another site.

LIST OF "Alphabet Agencies"

AAA - Agricultural Adjustment Administration, 1933
CAA - Civilian Aeronautics Authority (now Federal Aviation Administration), 1933
CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps, 1933
CCC - Commodity Credit Corporation, 1933
CWA - Civil Works Administration, 1933
FAP - Federal Art Project, part of WPA, 1935
FCA - Farm Credit Administration, 1933
FCC - Federal Communications Commission, 1934
FDIC - Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, 1933
FERA - Federal Emergency Relief Administration, 1933
FHA - Federal Housing Administration, 1934
FMP - Federal Music Project, part of WPA 1935
FSA - Farm Security Administration, 1935
FTP - Federal Theatre Project, part of WPA 1935
FWP - Federal Writers' Project, part of WPA 1935
HOLC - Home Owners Loan Corporation, 1933
NIRA - National Industrial Recovery Act, 1933
NLRB - National Labor Relations Board, 1934
NRA - National Recovery Administration, 1933
NYA - National Youth Administration, part of WPA 1935
PRRA - Puerto Rico Reconstruction Administration, 1933
PWA - Public Works Administration, 1933
RA - Resettlement Administration, 1935
REA - Rural Electrification Administration, 1935
RFC - Reconstruction Finance Corporation (originally a Hoover agency), 1932
SEC - Securities and Exchange Commission, 1934
SSB - Social Security Board (now Social Security Administration), 1935
TVA - Tennessee Valley Authority, 1933
USHA - United States Housing Authority, 1937
WPA - Works Progress Administration, 1935
external image new_deal_wpa.jpgThe WPA ended until 1943 and employed minimum
8.5 million people at an average of $2 per day.
They built thousands of roads, bridges, schools,
post offices and other public construction projects.
In addition, under the WPA's Arts Program, thousands
of unemployed writers, musicians, artists, actors, and
photographers temporarily went on the federal payroll,
producing public projects ranging from from murals to
national park.